(a) The levels of C9ORF72 variant 2 mRNA transcript (encoding isoform A). Values are mean ± s.e.m., two-tailed t-test with Welch’s correction. t-value: 5.347, degrees of freedom: 11.08. n= 9 biologically independent iMN conversions from 3 control lines and 12 biologically independent iMN conversions from 5 C9-ALS lines. (b–d) iMN survival in excess glutamate following introduction of C9ORF72 (C9 isoform A or B) into C9ORF72 patient iMNs (b), but not control (b, d) or SOD1-ALS iMNs (c). For (b), n=50 iMNs per line for 2 control and 3 C9-ALS lines, iMNs quantified from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions per line. For (c), n=50 iMNs per condition, iMNs scored from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions. For (d), n=50 iMNs per line per condition for 2 control lines, iMNs quantified from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions. Each trace includes iMNs from 2–3 donors with the specified genotype (except SOD1-ALS (c)); see full details in Methods. (e) Strategy for knocking out C9ORF72 from control iPSCs using CRISPR/Cas9. (f) Survival of control (CTRL2) iMNs, the isogenic heterozygous (C9+/−) and homozygous (C9−/−) iMNs and C9ORF72 patient (C9-ALS) iMNs in excess glutamate. n=50 biologically independent iMNs per line per condition for one control and two C9-ALS lines, iMNs quantified from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions. (g) Control iMN survival in excess glutamate with scrambled or C9ORF72 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). Each trace includes control iMNs from 2 donors. n=50 biologically independent iMNs per line per condition for 2 control lines, iMNs quantified from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions. All iMN survival experiments were analyzed by two-sided log-rank test, and statistical significance was calculated using the entire survival time course. iMN survival experiments in (b, d, and g) were performed in a Nikon Biostation, and (e and f) were performed in a Molecular Devices ImageExpress.
Near the cities Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, and Jinan, Wuqiao County has many transportation connections. There are many rail and bus services operating in the town. Wuqiao was the first Chinese city to open up its doors to the world under the "Open Door" policy and over many years development, Wuqiao has become a flourishing city with a favorable investment environment.
Hb9::RFP+ C9ORF72 ALS/FTD iMNs were generated in 96-well plates. On Day 15 post transduction, neurotrophic factors and RepSox were withdrawn and the small molecule library was added (EMD Millipore kinase collection and Stemselect library, 3.3 µM final concentration) and added fresh every other day until the screen was terminated on Day 25 post-transduction. Identification of neuroprotective compounds was identified using SVcell 3.0 (DRVision Technologies) and further verification by manual iMN tracking.
We also found that Reduced C9ORF72 activity also induces iMN hypersensitivity to DPRs by impairing their clearance. This uncovers a more direct form of cooperative pathogenesis between gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms in C9ORF72 ALS/FTD. Through a potentially similar mechanism, reduced C9orf72 levels can also facilitate cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation in mouse neurons 20.
Libraries were prepared from total RNA using Clontech SMARTer Stranded RNA-Seq kit, with Clonetech RiboGone ribodepletion performed ahead of cDNA generation. Amounts of input RNA were estimated using the Bioanalyzer and libraries produced according to Clontech’s protocol. Library generation and sequencing were performed at the Norris Cancer Center Sequencing Core at USC. All FASTQ files were analyzed using FastQC (version 0.10.1), trimmed using the FASTQ Toolkit (v 1.0), aligned to the GRCh37/hg19 reference genome using Tophat (version 2), and transcripts assembled and tested for differential expression using Cufflinks (version 2.1.1). Raw data is available for public download in the NCBI database under accession code PRJNA296854.
CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing was performed in human iPSCs as previously described, using Cas9 nuclease62. To generate loss-of-function alleles of C9ORF72, control iPSCs were transfected with a sgRNA targeting exon 2 of the C9ORF72 gene. Colonies were picked on day 7 after transfection and genotyped by PCR amplification and sequencing of exon 2. Colonies containing a frameshift mutation were clonally purified on MEF feeders and the resulting clones were re-sequenced to verify the loss-of-function mutation in C9ORF72.
iMNs from healthy controls and ALS patients were collected on day 21 post-transduction in RIPA buffer (Sigma-Aldrich) with a protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche). Protein quantity was measured by the BCA assay (Pierce) and samples were run on a 10% SDS gel at 4 °C. The gel was transferred onto an Immobilon membrane (Millipore). The membrane was blocked with 5% milk in 0.1% PBS-Tween 20 (PBS-T)(Sigma-Aldrich), incubated with primary antibodies overnight at 4 °C, washed three times with 0.1% PBS-T, then incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated (Santa Cruz). After three washes with 0.1% PBS-T, blots were visualized using an Amersham ECL Western Blotting Detection Kit (GE) or the SuperSignal West Femto Maximum Sensitivity Substrate (Thermo) and developed on X-ray film (Genesee). The following primary antibodies were used: rabbit anti-C9ORF72 (Proteintech, cat. no. 22637–1-AP), mouse anti-GAPDH (Santa Cruz, cat. no. sc-32233), chicken anti-MAP2 (Abcam, cat. no. ab11267), mouse anti-FLAG (Sigma, cat. no. F1804), rabbit anti-GLUR1 (Millipore, cat. no. 1504), mouse anti-NR1 (Novus, cat. no. NB300118), mouse anti-Transferrin receptor (Thermo, cat. no. 136800), mouse anti-LAMP3 (DSHB, cat. no. H5C6), rabbit anti-LAMP3 (Proteintech, cat. no. 12632), mouse anti-LAMP2 (DSHB, cat. no. H4B4), mouse anti-LAMP1 (Abcam, cat. no. Ab25630), goat anti-HRP (Santa Cruz, cat. no. sc-47778 HRP), mouse anti-EEA1 (BD Biosciences, cat. no. BD610457), mouse anti-TUJ1 (Biolegend, cat. no. MMS-435P), rabbit anti-APP (Abcam, cat. no. ab32136), mouse anti-Tau5 (Thermo, cat. no. AHB0042), mouse anti-PSD-95 (Thermo, cat. no. MA1–045) , mouse anti-p53 (Cell Signaling, cat. no. 2524S), anti-mouse HRP (Cell Signaling, cat. no. 7076S), anti-rabbit HRP (Cell Signaling, cat. no. 7074S). For C9ORF72 western blots, to generate enough motor neurons for C9ORF72 protein detection, we used a directed differentiation method described previously 28.
For heating and evaporation of concentrated solutions of electrolytes, the solution itself can serve as a resistor to give uniform heating throughout. Solutions of salts having a negative temperature coefficient of solubility can be concentrated by electrical heating, provided electrodes are maintained at a temperature below that of the solution. Experimental details are given for solutions of ... [Show full abstract]Read more
Minerals 2017, 7, 57; doi:10.3390/min7040057 www.mdpi.com/journal/minerals Article Migration Behavior of Lithium during Brine Evaporation and KCl Production Plants in Qarhan Salt Lake Weijun Song 1,2, Hongze Gang 1, Yuanqing Ma 4, Shizhong Yang 1 and Bozhong Mu 1,3,* 1 Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering and Institute of Applied Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China; [email protected] (W.S.); [email protected] (H.G.); [email protected] (S.Y.) 2 School of Chemical Engineering, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China 3 Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center for Biomanufacturing Technology, Shanghai 200237, China 4 Qinghai Salt Lake Industry Group Co. Ltd., Golmud 816000, China; [email protected] * Correspondence: [email protected] Academic Editor: Javier Sánchez-España Received: 8 January 2017; Accepted: 2 April 2017; Published: 11 April 2017 Abstract: Lithium-brine is an important potential source of lithium. Much research and investigation has been carried out aimed at lithium recovery from brine. Although the distribution and occurrence status of lithium in brine have important implications for lithium recovery, few reports had correlated to this issue. In this article, a study was carried out to explore the lithium migration behavior during brine evaporation and KCl production process at Qarhan Salt Lake. The occurrence status of lithium both in fresh mined brine and residual brine after evaporation were also speculated by means of lithium concentration evaluation and theoretical calculation based on the Pitzer electrolyte solution theory. Results showed that, for Qarhan brine mined from the Bieletan region, most lithium was enriched in the residual brine during the brine evaporation process. The concentration of lithium in the residual brine could be more than 400 mg/L. More than 99.93% lithium ions in residual brine exist in free ions state and lithium does not precipitate from brine with a density of 1.3649 g/mL. The results also revealed that lithium concentration in wastewater discharged from KCl plants can reach a level of 243.8 mg/L. The investigation results provide a theoretical basis for comprehensive development and utilization of lithium resources in Qarhan Salt Lake. Keywords: lithium migration; occurrence status; Qarhan Salt Lake 1. Introduction As an energy metal of the twenty-first century, lithium had attracted more and more attention in the past few decades. Lithium has been widely applied in high energy batteries, controlled thermonuclear reactions, the manufacturing of ceramic and glass, and other fields [1–7]. Lithium consumption for batteries had increased most significantly due to the development of the electric vehicle industry and the popularity of portable electronic products. Stimulated by the political affairs, economic requirements, and environmental conservation, lithium resources have become the focus of the international mining market and lithium’s position as a strategic resource is becoming more prominent. Salt lake brine, thermal spring, and oilfield water are important geological sources of lithium. The commercial exploitation of the lithium resource of brine began at the Searles Lake in the US in 1936. Since then, more focus has been placed on recovering lithium from salt lake brine because of its low economical cost and low environmental impact [8–10]. As a country possessing huge amount of
Yingxiao Shi,#1,2,3 Shaoyu Lin,#1,2,3 Kim A. Staats,1,2,3 Yichen Li,1,2,3 Wen-Hsuan Chang,1,2,3 Shu-Ting Hung,1,2,3 Eric Hendricks,1,2,3 Gabriel R. Linares,1,2,3 Yaoming Wang,3,4 Esther Y. Son,5 Xinmei Wen,6 Kassandra Kisler,3,4 Brent Wilkinson,3 Louise Menendez,1,2,3 Tohru Sugawara,1,2,3 Phillip Woolwine,1,2,3 Mickey Huang,1,2,3 Michael J. Cowan,1,2,3 Brandon Ge,1,2,3 Nicole Koutsodendris,1,2,3 Kaitlin P. Sandor,1,2,3 Jacob Komberg,1,2,3 Vamshidhar R. Vangoor,7 Ketharini Senthilkumar,7 Valerie Hennes,1,2,3 Carina Seah,1,2,3 Amy R. Nelson,3,4 Tze-Yuan Cheng,8 Shih-Jong J. Lee,8 Paul R. August,9 Jason A. Chen,10 Nicholas Wisniewski,10 Hanson-Smith Victor,10 T. Grant Belgard,10 Alice Zhang,10 Marcelo Coba,3,11 Chris Grunseich,12 Michael E. Ward,12 Leonard H. van den Berg,13 R. Jeroen Pasterkamp,7 Davide Trotti,6 Berislav V. Zlokovic,3,4 and Justin K. Ichida1,2,3,†
To determine if the survival difference between C9ORF72 patient iMNs and controls was specific to our transcription factor-based reprogramming approach, we also measured the survival of Hb9::RFP+ control and C9ORF72 patient motor neurons derived from iPSCs by small molecule activation of the Sonic Hedgehog and retinoic acid signaling pathways 28 (Supplementary Fig. 3g, h). Similarly to iMNs, morphogen-generated motor neurons showed a significant survival difference between C9ORF72 patients and controls (Supplementary Fig. 3i-l).
For all experiments, sample size was chosen using a power analysis based on pilot experiments that provided an estimate of effect size (http://ww.stat.ubc.ca/~rollin/stats/ssize/n2.html). Mice used for immunohistochemical analysis were selected randomly from a set of genotyped animals (genotypes were known to investigators). Mouse and human tissue sections used for immunohistochemical analysis were selected randomly. For mouse tissues, sections were prepared using an approximately equal representation of all levels of the spinal cord, and of those, all were imaged and quantified. The sections were only not used if NeuN or Chat immunostaining failed. For iMN survival assays, assays were repeated at least twice, with each round containing 3 biologically independent iMN conversions. iMNs from the 3 biologically independent iMN conversions in one representative round was used to generate the Kaplan-Meier plot shown. iMN survival times were confirmed by manual longitudinal tracking by an individual who was blinded to the identity of the genotype and condition of each sample. To select 50 iMNs per condition for analysis, >50 neurons were selected for tracking randomly at day 1 of the assay. Subsequently, the survival values for 50 cells were selected at random using the RAND function in Microsoft Excel. For quantification of immunofluorescence, samples were quantified by an individual who was blinded to the identity of the genotype of each sample.