For all experiments, sample size was chosen using a power analysis based on pilot experiments that provided an estimate of effect size (http://ww.stat.ubc.ca/~rollin/stats/ssize/n2.html). Mice used for immunohistochemical analysis were selected randomly from a set of genotyped animals (genotypes were known to investigators). Mouse and human tissue sections used for immunohistochemical analysis were selected randomly. For mouse tissues, sections were prepared using an approximately equal representation of all levels of the spinal cord, and of those, all were imaged and quantified. The sections were only not used if NeuN or Chat immunostaining failed. For iMN survival assays, assays were repeated at least twice, with each round containing 3 biologically independent iMN conversions. iMNs from the 3 biologically independent iMN conversions in one representative round was used to generate the Kaplan-Meier plot shown. iMN survival times were confirmed by manual longitudinal tracking by an individual who was blinded to the identity of the genotype and condition of each sample. To select 50 iMNs per condition for analysis, >50 neurons were selected for tracking randomly at day 1 of the assay. Subsequently, the survival values for 50 cells were selected at random using the RAND function in Microsoft Excel. For quantification of immunofluorescence, samples were quantified by an individual who was blinded to the identity of the genotype of each sample.
In advanced traditional Chinese kung fu (martial arts), Neijing (Traditional Chinese: 內勁; pinyin: nèijìng) refers to the conscious control of the practitioner's qi, or "life energy", to gain advantages in combat.[1] Nèijìng is developed by using "Neigong" (Traditional Chinese: 內功; pinyin: nèigōng) (內功), or "internal exercises," as opposed to "wàigōng" (外功), "external exercises."
HEK 293T cells were used to produce retrovirus, lentivirus, and C9ORF72 protein. HEK cells were used for these purposes based on previous published studies using HEK cells in order to produce viral particles and mammalian proteins. HEK cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection, catalog number CRL-11268. HEK and iPS cells were tested for mycoplasma before, during, and after the study and were negative.
On the other hand, the level of the Neijing force depends on the extent one can exercise over one's will power to release an inner qi energy. Within the framework of Chinese martial arts, every person is believed to possess the inborn energy of qi. Martial artists can harness the force of qi so that it is strong enough to be applied in combat. When qi is being directed by one's will, it is called Neijing.[4]
The degree of Li force one can employ in kung fu depends on several variables such as resilience of muscles, strength of bones, speed and timing of attack and so on. An effective way to enhance the Li force is to exercise one's muscles and bones by applying increasing pressure on them (weight training, gym exercises, etc.).[2] The stronger one's muscles and bones become, the more powerful and skillful the level of kung fu is.[3]
To verify that PIKFYVE-dependent modulation of vesicle trafficking was responsible for rescuing C9ORF72 patient iMN survival, we tested the ability of a constitutively active RAB5 mutant to block C9ORF72 patient iMN degeneration. Active RAB5 recruits PI3-kinase to synthesize PI3P from PI and therefore, like PIKFYVE inhibition, increases PI3P levels 56. Constitutively active RAB5 did not improve control iMN survival (n=2 controls)(Supplementary Fig. 15k), but successfully rescued C9ORF72 patient iMN survival (n=3 patients)(Supplementary Fig. 15l). In constrast, dominant negative RAB5, wild-type RAB5, or constitutively active RAB7 did not rescue C9ORF72 patient iMN survival (n=1, 3, 3 patients, respectively)(Supplementary Fig. 14m-o).

To determine if glutamate receptor accumulation occurs on C9ORF72 patient motor neurons in vivo, we measured glutamate receptor expression in ventral horn neurons in lumbar spinal cord samples from 3 C9ORF72 ALS patients and 3 unaffected controls. We identified motor neurons by size and confirmed that most neurons selected in this manner were CHAT+ and SMI-32+ (Supplementary Fig. 12d). Spinal motor neurons from the C9ORF72 ALS patients displayed higher NR1 levels than control neurons (Supplementary Fig. 12e). In addition, post-synaptic densities isolated from the motor corticesof C9ORF72 patients had higher levels of NR1 and GLUR1 than controls (Fig. 4k, l and Supplementary Fig. 5k).
To verify that PIKFYVE-dependent modulation of vesicle trafficking was responsible for rescuing C9ORF72 patient iMN survival, we tested the ability of a constitutively active RAB5 mutant to block C9ORF72 patient iMN degeneration. Active RAB5 recruits PI3-kinase to synthesize PI3P from PI and therefore, like PIKFYVE inhibition, increases PI3P levels 56. Constitutively active RAB5 did not improve control iMN survival (n=2 controls)(Supplementary Fig. 15k), but successfully rescued C9ORF72 patient iMN survival (n=3 patients)(Supplementary Fig. 15l). In constrast, dominant negative RAB5, wild-type RAB5, or constitutively active RAB7 did not rescue C9ORF72 patient iMN survival (n=1, 3, 3 patients, respectively)(Supplementary Fig. 14m-o).
CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing was performed in human iPSCs as previously described, using Cas9 nuclease62. To generate loss-of-function alleles of C9ORF72, control iPSCs were transfected with a sgRNA targeting exon 2 of the C9ORF72 gene. Colonies were picked on day 7 after transfection and genotyped by PCR amplification and sequencing of exon 2. Colonies containing a frameshift mutation were clonally purified on MEF feeders and the resulting clones were re-sequenced to verify the loss-of-function mutation in C9ORF72.
Post mortem tissues were kindly provided by Neil Shneider (Columbia) and were collected from the following individuals: Sample 1 – age: 64, diagnosis: ALS, genotype: positive for C9ORF72 repeat expansion, Sample 2 – age: 55, diagnosis: ALS, genotype: positive for C9ORF72 repeat expansion, Sample 3 – age: 65, diagnosis: ALS, genotype: positive for C9ORF72 repeat expansion, Sample 4 – age: 65, diagnosis: control, genotype: negative for C9ORF72 repeat expansion, Sample 5 – age: 50, diagnosis: control, genotype: negative for C9ORF72 repeat expansion, Sample 6 – age: 50, diagnosis: control, genotype: negative for C9ORF72 repeat expansion, Sample 7 – age: 53, diagnosis: ALS, genotype: negative for C9ORF72 repeat expansion, Sample 8 - age: 64, diagnosis: ALS, genotype: negative for C9ORF72 repeat expansion. All donors except donor 7 (sample 7) were female. For immunofluorescence, 10 µm sections were sliced from flash frozen lumbar spinal cord tissues. Sections were then air dried and fixed with ice cold acetone for 10 minutes, and blocked with 10% normal goat serum/1% BSA/0.3% Triton-X/PBS at room temperature for 1 hour followed by incubation with NR1 antibody (1:200, BD Bioscience) in blocking buffer overnight at 4 ºC. Sections subsequently were blocked using avidin/biotin kit (Vector Lab), and washed with PBS. Then, sections were incubated with goat anti-rabbit IgG Biotin conjugate secondary antibody (1:750, Invitrogen) or with goat anti-mouse IgG Biotin conjugate secondary antibody (1:750, Invitrogen) for 1 hour at room temperature, washed and incubated with streptavidin-Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate (1:500, Invitrogen) in dark for 1 hour at room temperature. Sections were washed and blocked again in blocking buffer for 1 hour at room temperature. For neuronal marker staining, sections were incubated with Tu-20 antibody (1:1000, Abcam) or NeuN antibody (1:500, Abcam) at 37 ºC for 1 hour. Sections were washed with PBS and incubated with goat anti-mouse Alexa Fluor 546 (1:500, Invitrogen) or goat anti-rabbit Alexa Fluor 546 (1:500, Invitrogen) for 1 hour at room temperature. Lipofuscin autofluorescence was quenched by immersing sections in autofluorescence eliminator reagent (Millipore) for 4 minutes following manufacture’s instruction. Sections were then counterstained and mounted with Prolong Gold antifade mounting medium with DAPI (Invitrogen).
GCaMP6 was cloned into the pMXs-Dest-WRE retroviral vector and transduced into reprogramming cultures concurrently with the motor neuron factors. To assess GCaMP6 activity, 1.5 μm glutamate was added to iMN cultures and cells were imaged continuously for 2 minutes at 24 frames per second. GFP flashes were scored manually using the video recording. At least 3 different fields of view from three independent cultures, totalling 50–100 iMNs, were scored per condition.
The fabrication of composite cathode with boroxine ring for all-solid-polymer lithium cell was described. Composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) was applied between the lithium metal anode and the composite cathode in a coin-shaped cell in order to prepare the solid-polymer electrolyte cell. The CPE films were cast on a flat polytetrafluoroethylene vessel from an acetonitrile slurry containing BaTiO ... [Show full abstract]Read more
International Advisory Board: James Archibald (Translation Studies) - Hugo de Burgh (Chinese Media Studies) - Kristen Brustad (Arabic Linguistics) - Daniel Coste (French Language) - Luciano Curreri (Italian Literature) - Claudio Di Meola (German Linguistics) - Donatella Dolcini (Hindi Studies) - Johann Drumbl (German Linguistics) - Denis Ferraris (Italian Literature) - Lawrence Grossberg (Cultural Studies) - Stephen Gundle (Film and Television Studies) - Tsuchiya Junji (Sociology) - John McLeod (Post-colonial Studies) - Estrella Montolío Durán (Spanish Language) - Silvia Morgana (Italian Linguistics) - Samir Marzouki (Translation, Cultural Relations) - Mbare Ngom (Post-Colonial Literatures) - Christiane Nord (Translation Studies) - Roberto Perin (History) - Giovanni Rovere (Italian Linguistics) - Lara Ryazanova-Clarke (Russian Studies) - Shi-Xu (Discourse and Cultural Studies) - Srikant Sarangi (Discourse analysis) - Françoise Sabban, Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine (Chinese Studies) - Itala Vivan (Cultural Studies, Museum Studies)
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