iMNs were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) for 1h at 4 ºC, permeabilized with 0.5% PBS-T overnight at 4 ºC, blocked with 10% FBS in 0.1% PBS-T at room temperature for 2 h, and incubated with primary antibodies at 4 ºC overnight. Cells were then washed with 0.1% PBS-T and incubated with Alexa Fluor® secondary antibodies (Life Technologies) in blocking buffer for 2 h at room temperature. To visualize nuclei, cells were stained with DAPI (Life Technologies) then mounted on slides with Vectashield® (Vector Labs). Images were acquired on an LSM 780 confocal microcope (Zeiss). The following primary antibodies were used: mouse anti-HB9 (Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank); mouse anti-TUJ1 (EMD Millipore); rabbit anti-VACHT (Sigma); rabbit anti-C9ORF72 (Sigma-Aldrich); mouse anti-EEA1 (BD Biosciences); mouse anti-RAB5 (BD Biosciences); mouse anti-RAB7 (GeneTex); mouse anti-LAMP1 (Abcam); mouse anti-LAMP3 (DSHB, cat. no. H5C6); rabbit anti-LAMP3 (Proteintech, cat. no. 12632); mouse anti-LAMP2 (DSHB, cat. no. H4B4); mouse anti-M6PR (Abcam, cat. no. Ab2733); rabbit anti-GluR1 (EMD Millipore, cat. no. pc246); mouse anti-GluR1 (Santa Cruz); rabbit anti-NR1 (EMD Millipore); mouse anti-NR1 (EMD Millipore, cat. no. MAB363); chicken anti-GFP (GeneTex).

Wuqiao County (simplified Chinese: 吴桥县; traditional Chinese: 吳橋縣; pinyin: Wúqiáo Xiàn, literally "Wu Bridge") is a county of southeastern Hebei province, China, bordering Shandong province to the southeast. It is the southernmost county-level division of the prefecture-level city of Cangzhou. Wuqiao covers an area of 583 km2 (225 sq mi) with a population of 280,000 and 444 natural villages under its jurisdiction. Over a period of more than 1500 years, Wuqiao is an old county with a vivid and rich history and culture. Wuqiao is situated in the center of the Huabei Plains and has a pleasant climate most of the year round and it is possible to pleasurably visit here at almost any time of the year.[citation needed]
On the other hand, the level of the Neijing force depends on the extent one can exercise over one's will power to release an inner qi energy. Within the framework of Chinese martial arts, every person is believed to possess the inborn energy of qi. Martial artists can harness the force of qi so that it is strong enough to be applied in combat. When qi is being directed by one's will, it is called Neijing.[4]
To determine if patient iMN degeneration resulted from bona fide ALS disease processes specific for motor neurons, we measured the survival of induced dopaminergic neurons (iDAs) generated by expression of FoxA2, Lmx1a, Brn2, Ascl1, and Myt1l 29. These neurons expressed high levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, indicating they had established a key aspect of the dopamine synthesis pathway and were distinct from iMNs, which do not express this enzyme 24 (Supplementary Fig. 3m, n). Unlike iMN cultures, iDA cultures from C9ORF72 patients (n=2 patients) did not show reduced survival compared to controls (n=2 controls) in either glutamate treatment and neurotrophic factor withdrawal conditions (Fig. 1h and Supplementary Fig. 3o), indicating that the in vitro neurodegenerative phenotype elicited by the C9ORF72 mutation is selective for motor neurons.
To determine if the survival difference between C9ORF72 patient iMNs and controls was specific to our transcription factor-based reprogramming approach, we also measured the survival of Hb9::RFP+ control and C9ORF72 patient motor neurons derived from iPSCs by small molecule activation of the Sonic Hedgehog and retinoic acid signaling pathways 28 (Supplementary Fig. 3g, h). Similarly to iMNs, morphogen-generated motor neurons showed a significant survival difference between C9ORF72 patients and controls (Supplementary Fig. 3i-l).
Practitioners of kung fu refer to two separate forms of personal force: Li (Traditional Chinese: 力) refers to the more elementary use of tangible physical (or "external") force, such as that produced by muscles. Neijing (Traditional Chinese:內勁) or Neigong (Traditional Chinese: 內功), in contrast, refer to "internal" forces produced via advanced mental control over psychic energy (the qi).
Human lymphocytes from healthy subjects and ALS patients were obtained from the NINDS Biorepository at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research and reprogrammed into iPSCs as previously described using episomal vectors61. Briefly, mammalian expression vectors containing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, L-Myc, Lin28, and a p53 shRNA were introduced into the lymphocytes using the Adult Dermal Fibroblast Nucleofector™ Kit and Nucleofector™ 2b Device (Lonza) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The cells were then cultured on mouse feeders until iPSC colonies appeared. The colonies were then expanded and maintained on Matrigel (BD) in mTeSR1 medium (Stem Cell Technologies).

Human lymphocytes from healthy subjects and ALS patients were obtained from the NINDS Biorepository at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research and reprogrammed into iPSCs as previously described using episomal vectors61. Briefly, mammalian expression vectors containing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, L-Myc, Lin28, and a p53 shRNA were introduced into the lymphocytes using the Adult Dermal Fibroblast Nucleofector™ Kit and Nucleofector™ 2b Device (Lonza) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The cells were then cultured on mouse feeders until iPSC colonies appeared. The colonies were then expanded and maintained on Matrigel (BD) in mTeSR1 medium (Stem Cell Technologies).

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