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To measure the effect of dipeptide repeat protein expression on iMN survival, PR50 and GR50 were cloned into the pHAGE lentiviral vector as fusions with GFP to allow tracking of protein expression. iMN cultures were transduced with PR50 and GR50 lentiviruses at day 17 of reprogramming and longitudinal survival analysis was started the same day. 10 ng/ml of GDNF, BDNF, and CNTF was maintained throughout the experiment, and glutamate treatment was not performed. To measure PR50 turnover, PR50 was cloned into the pHAGE lentiviral vector as a fusion with Dendra2 (Addgene). iPSC-derived fibroblasts were generated according to Daley and colleagues64. Briefly, when C9ORF72−/− iPSC cultures reached 80% confluence, the medium was switched from mTeSR1 (Stem Cell Technologies) to human fibroblast medium containing DMEM (Life Technologies), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)(Thermo Fisher Scientific), and 1% penicillin/streptomycin (Life Technologies). Cells were passaged 2 to 3 times using Accutase (Life Technologies) before use in experiments. iPSC-derived fibroblasts were transduced with either pMXs-eGFP or pMXs-C9ORF72 isoform B-T2A-eGFP retrovirus and treated with 10 μg/ml mitomycin C for 3 hrs to inhibit cell proliferation. The cells were then transduced with the PR50–Dendra2 lentivirus and exposed to blue light for 1.5 sec using a lumencor LED light source to initiate photoconversion. The amount of decay (as a fraction of the starting level) of the red fluorescent punctae was monitored by longitudinal time lapse imaging in a Molecular Devices ImageExpress and analyzed using SVCell 2.0 (DRVision Technologies). Fluorescence was quantified at t = 0 and 12 hours after photoconversion. Distinct photoconverted punctae were treated as discrete objects for analysis (n = 20 each for +eGFP and +C9ORF72-T2A-eGFP). For each object, background fluorescence was subtracted and fluorescence was normalized according to object size. The fractional decay was statistically analyzed by two-tailed Student’s t-test. ** - p<.01.
For heating and evaporation of concentrated solutions of electrolytes, the solution itself can serve as a resistor to give uniform heating throughout. Solutions of salts having a negative temperature coefficient of solubility can be concentrated by electrical heating, provided electrodes are maintained at a temperature below that of the solution. Experimental details are given for solutions of ... [Show full abstract]Read more
Whole cell membrane potential and current recordings in voltage- and current-clamp configurations were made using an EPC9 patch clamp amplifier controlled with PatchMaster software (HEKA Electronics). Voltage- and current-clamp data was acquired at 50 kHz and 20 kHz, respectively, with a 2.9 kHz low-pass Bessel filter, while spontaneous action potential recordings were acquired at 1 kHz sampling frequency. For experiments, culture media was exchanged with warm extracellular solution consisting of (in mM): 140 NaCl, 2.8 KCl, 10 HEPES, 1 MgCl2, 2 CaCl2, and 10 glucose, with pH adjusted to 7.3 and osmolarity adjusted to 305 mOsm. Glass patch pipettes were pulled on a Narishige PC-10 puller and polished to 5–7 MΩ resistance. Pipettes were also coated with Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning) to reduce pipette capacitance. The pipette solution consisted of (in mM): 130 K-gluconate, 2 KCl, 1CaCl2, 4 MgATP, 0.3 GTP, 8 phosphocreatine, 10 HEPES, 11 EGTA, adjusted to pH 7.25 and 290 mOsm. Pipettes were sealed to cells in GΩ-resistance whole cell configuration, with access resistances typically between 10–20 MΩ, and leakage currents less than 50 pA. Capacitance transients were compensated automatically through software control. For voltage clamp, cells were held at −70 mV. For Current-voltage traces, a P/4 algorithm was used to subtract leakage currents from the traces. Measurements were taken at room temperature (approximately 20–25 °C). Data was analyzed and plotted in Igor Pro 6 (WaveMetrics) using Patcher’s Power Tools plug-in and custom programmed routines. Current density was obtained by dividing the measured ion channel current by the cell capacitance. For control iMNs, 10/10 tested fired action potentials. For C9-ALS iMNs, 9/10 tested fired action potentials.
We anticipate three key implications of our findings: 1) ALS/FTD caused by the C9ORF72 repeat expansion requires both gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms, 2) increasing C9ORF72 activity in motor neurons should mitigate disease and provides a new therapeutic target, and 3) PIKFYVE inhibition and other approaches that modulate vesicle trafficking may ameliorate C9ORF72 disease processes in both neurons and myeloid cells. The fact that mutations in FIG4 cause ALS, epilepsy, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth 55 illustrates the broad implications of impaired vesicle trafficking within the CNS. The identification of targets that effectively modulate vesicle trafficking in neurons, glia, and myeloid cells could hold tremendous therapeutic value for C9ORF72 ALS/FTD and other CNS disorders.
Mice were anesthetized with i.p. ketamine (100 mg ⁄ kg) and xylazine (10 mg ⁄ kg), and body temperature kept at 36.9 ± 0.1°C with a thermostatic heating pad. Mice were placed in a stereotactic apparatus (ASI Instruments, USA) and the head is fixed accordingly. A burr hole was drilled, and an injection needle (33 gauge) was lowered into the hippocampus between CA1 and the dentate gyrus (AP −2.0, ML +1.5, DV −1.8). NMDA (20 nmol in 0.3 μl of phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4) was infused over 2 min using a micro-injection system (World Precision Instruments, Sarasota, FL, USA). Simultaneously, or independently, Apilimod (0.3 μl of 20 μM in phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4) was infused over 2 min using a micro-injection system (World Precision Instruments, Sarasota, FL, USA). The needle was left in place for an additional 8 min after the injection. Animals were euthanized 48 h later. Brains were quickly removed, frozen on dry ice, and stored at −80°C until processing. Thirty-micrometer-thick coronal sections were prepared using a cryostat. Every fifth section 1 mm anterior and posterior to the site of injection was stained with cresyl violet. The lesion area was identiﬁed by the loss of staining, measured by NIH ImageJ software and integrated to obtain the volume of injury.
Our results highlight the importance of C9ORF72 protein function, RAB5 activity, PI3P levels, and lysosomeal function as key therapeutic targets for C9ORF72 ALS/FTD. By generating PI3P, RAB5 drives early endosomal maturation and the initial stages of lysosomal biogenesis (Fig. 6f)59. PI3P also plays important roles in autophagosome formation and autophagsome-lysosome fusion. Indeed, a previous study suggests that PIKFYVE inhibition may increase autophagic flux 53, and this should be investigated in the context of motor neurons. Loss-of-function mutations in two other genes whose proteins function to increase PI3P levels, ALS2 and FIG4, also cause ALS 1. ALS2 encodes the RAB5 guanine exchange factor ALSIN 60, while FIG4 converts PI(3,5)P2 into PI3P 55(Fig. 6f). In addition, proteins encoded by several other ALS genes play key roles in lysosomal biogenesis, including CHMP2B, OPTN, and SQSTM1 1. The fact that FIG4 and ALS2 loss-of-function mutations can cause ALS suggests that PIKFYVE inhibition or RAB5 activation may be capable of modulating ALS disease processes in humans.
For experiments other than the comparison of Apilimod and the reduced-activity analog, Apilimod was purchased from Axon Medchem (cat. no. 1369). For the reduced-activity analog assays, Apilimod and the reduced activity analog were synthesized at Icagen, Inc. according to the schemes shown in Supplementary Fig. 16. PIKFYVE kinase inhibition was measured using the ADP-Glo kinase assay from SignalChem according to the manufacturer’s instructions, using purified PIKFYVE kinase (SignalChem cat. no. P17–11BG-05).
Hb9::RFP+ iMNs appeared between days 13–16 after retroviral transduction. RepSox was removed at day 17 and the survival assay was initiated. For the glutamate treatment condition, 10 µM glutamate was added to the culture medium on day 17 and removed after 12 hours. Cells were then maintained in N3 medium with neurotrophic factors without RepSox. For the glutamate treatment condition with glutamate receptor antagonists, cultures were co-treated with 10 μM MK801 and CNQX, and 2 μM Nimodipine during the 12 hour glutamate treatment. The antagonists were maintained for the remainder of the experiment. For the neurotrophic factor withdrawal condition, BDNF, GDNF, and CNTF were removed from the culture medium starting at day 17. Longitudinal tracking was performed by imaging neuronal cultures in a Nikon Biostation CT or Molecular Devices ImageExpress once every 24–72 hours starting at day 17. Tracking of neuronal survival was performed using SVcell 3.0 (DRVision Technologies). Neurons were scored as dead when their soma was no longer detectable by RFP fluorescence. All neuron survival assays were performed at least twice, with equal numbers of neurons from three individual replicates from one of the trials being used for the quantification shown. All trials quantified were representative of other trials of the same experiment. When iMNs from multiple independent donors are combined into one survival trace in the Kaplan-Meier plots for clarity, the number of iMNs tracked from each line can be found in Supplementary Table 5.
To determine if Pikfyve inhibition rescues gain-of-function processes in vivo, we measured DPR levels in C9-BAC transgenic mice 58 with or without Apilimod treatment. Although it was not previously reported 58, we observed significantly higher levels of GR+ punctae in hippocampal neurons in C9-BAC mice than controls (Fig. 6j) using a previously-validated poly(GR) antibody 11. These data are consistent with findings in another published C9-BAC mouse model 14, suggesting that poly(GR) may be a common feature of C9-BAC mice. We also detected a low level of poly(GR) in neurons from control mice (Fig. 6j), which may be derived from other repeat regions or proteins with short poly(GR) sequences. Nevertheless, GR+ punctae levels were significantly higher in C9-BAC mouse neurons than in controls (Fig. 6j). Importantly, Apilimod treatment significantly reduced the number of GR+ punctae in hippocampal neurons in C9-BAC mice after 48 hrs (Fig. 6i, j). Therefore, small molecule inhibition of Pikfyve rescues both gain- and loss-of-function disease processes induced by C9ORF72 repeat expansion in vivo.
(a) The levels of C9ORF72 variant 2 mRNA transcript (encoding isoform A). Values are mean ± s.e.m., two-tailed t-test with Welch’s correction. t-value: 5.347, degrees of freedom: 11.08. n= 9 biologically independent iMN conversions from 3 control lines and 12 biologically independent iMN conversions from 5 C9-ALS lines. (b–d) iMN survival in excess glutamate following introduction of C9ORF72 (C9 isoform A or B) into C9ORF72 patient iMNs (b), but not control (b, d) or SOD1-ALS iMNs (c). For (b), n=50 iMNs per line for 2 control and 3 C9-ALS lines, iMNs quantified from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions per line. For (c), n=50 iMNs per condition, iMNs scored from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions. For (d), n=50 iMNs per line per condition for 2 control lines, iMNs quantified from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions. Each trace includes iMNs from 2–3 donors with the specified genotype (except SOD1-ALS (c)); see full details in Methods. (e) Strategy for knocking out C9ORF72 from control iPSCs using CRISPR/Cas9. (f) Survival of control (CTRL2) iMNs, the isogenic heterozygous (C9+/−) and homozygous (C9−/−) iMNs and C9ORF72 patient (C9-ALS) iMNs in excess glutamate. n=50 biologically independent iMNs per line per condition for one control and two C9-ALS lines, iMNs quantified from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions. (g) Control iMN survival in excess glutamate with scrambled or C9ORF72 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). Each trace includes control iMNs from 2 donors. n=50 biologically independent iMNs per line per condition for 2 control lines, iMNs quantified from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions. All iMN survival experiments were analyzed by two-sided log-rank test, and statistical significance was calculated using the entire survival time course. iMN survival experiments in (b, d, and g) were performed in a Nikon Biostation, and (e and f) were performed in a Molecular Devices ImageExpress.
(a) Phenotypic screening for small molecules that enhance the survival of C9-ALS iMNs. (b) Chemical structure of the PIKFYVE inhibitors YM201636 and Apilimod, and a reduced-activity analog of Apilimod. (c) Live cell images of iMNs at day 7 of treatment with DMSO or YM201636 (scale bar: 1 mm). This experiment was performed 3 times with similar results. (d) Survival effect of scrambled or PIFKVYE ASOs on C9-ALS iMNs in excess glutamate. n=50 iMNs per condition, iMNs quantified from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions per condition. (e) Survival effect of Apilimod and the reduced-activity analog on C9-ALS patient iMNs with neurotrophic factor withdrawal. n=50 iMNs per condition, iMNs quantified from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions per condition. All iMN survival experiments in (d, e) were analyzed by two-sided log-rank test, and statistical significance was calculated using the entire survival time course. (f) Activities of therapeutic targets in C9ORF72 ALS. (g, h) The effect of 3 μM Apilimod on NMDA-induced hippocampal injury in control, C9orf72+/−, or C9orf72−/− mice. (Mean +/− s.e.m. of n=3 mice per condition, one-way ANOVA with Tukey correction across all comparisons, F-value (DFn, DFd): (3, 8)=43.55, AP = Apilimod, red dashed lines outline the injury sites). (i, j) The effect of 3 μM Apilimod on the level of GR+ puncta in the dentate gyrus of control or C9-BAC mice. Mean +/− s.d. of the number of GR+ puncta per cell, each data point represents a single cell. n=20 (wild-type + DMSO), 20 (wild-type + Apilimod), 87 (C9-BAC + DMSO), and 87 (C9-BAC + Apilimod) cells quantified from 3 mice per condition, one-way ANOVA with Tukey correction for all comparisons, F-value (DFn, DFd): (3, 180) = 16.29. Scale bars = 2 μm, dotted lines outline nuclei, and white arrows denote GR+ punctae (i). (k) Model for the mechanisms that cooperate to cause neurodegeneration in C9ORF72 ALS/FTD. Proteins in red are known to be mutated in ALS or FTD. iMN survival experiments in (d, e) were performed in a Molecular Devices ImageExpress.
All experiments involving live vertebrates (cortical glial isolation) performed at USC were done in compliance with ethical regulations approved by the USC IACUC committee. All animal use and care at the University Medical Center Utrecht were in accordance with local institution guidelines of the University Medical Center Utrecht (Utrecht, the Netherlands) and approved by the Dierexperimenten Ethische Commissie Utrecht with the protocol number DEC 2013.I.09.069.
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Although C9orf72 knockout mice do not show overt neurodegeneration, gain-of-function disease processes may trigger neurodegeneration through mechanisms induced by reduced C9ORF72 levels. For example, DPRs cause mis-splicing of the EAAT2 glutamate transporter in astrocytes, which couldincrease excitotoxicity in neurons with elevated glutamate receptor levels 12. To determine if DPRs alter glutamate uptake by astrocytes, we compared glutamate uptake in human primary astrocytes expressing either GFP or GR50 –GFP. Indeed, GR50 –GFP significantly impaired glutamate uptake by astrocytes (Supplementary Fig. 13h).
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The following antibodies were used in this manuscript: mouse anti-HB9 (Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank); 81.5C10. chicken anti-TUJ1 (EMD Millipore); AB9354. rabbit anti-VACHT (Sigma); SAB4200559. rabbit anti-C9ORF72 (Sigma-Aldrich); HPA023873. rabbit anti-C9ORF72 (Proteintech); 25757–1-AP. mouse anti-EEA1 (BD Biosciences); 610457. mouse antiRAB5 (BD Biosciences); 610281. mouse anti-RAB7 (GeneTex); GTX16196. mouse anti-LAMP1 (Abcam); ab25630. mouse anti-M6PR (Abcam); ab2733. rabbit anti-GluR1 (EMD Millipore); pc246. mouse anti-NR1 (EMD Millipore); MAB363. chicken anti-GFP (GeneTex); GTX13970. rabbit anti-Glur6/7 (EMD Millipore); 04–921. mouse anti-FLAG (Sigma); F1804. mouse anti-GAPDH (Santa Cruz); sc-32233. chicken anti-MAP2 (Abcam); ab11267, rabbit anti-GLUR1 (Millipore, cat. no. 1504), mouse anti-NR1 (Novus, cat. no. NB300118), mouse anti-Transferrin receptor (Thermo, cat. no. 136800), mouse anti-LAMP3 (DSHB, cat. no. H5C6), rabbit anti-LAMP3 (Proteintech, cat. no. 12632), mouse anti-LAMP2 (DSHB, cat. no. H4B4), goat anti-HRP (Santa Cruz, cat. no. sc-47778 HRP), mouse anti-TUJ1 (Biolegend, cat. no. MMS-435P), rabbit anti-APP (Abcam, cat. no. ab32136), mouse anti-Tau5 (Thermo, cat. no. AHB0042), mouse anti-PSD-95 (Thermo, cat. no. MA1–045), mouse anti-p53 (Cell Signaling, cat. no. 2524S), anti-mouse HRP (Cell Signaling, cat. no. 7076S), anti-rabbit HRP (Cell Signaling, cat. no. 7074S).
Lithium-brine is an important potential source of lithium. Much research and investigation has been carried out aimed at lithium recovery from brine. Although the distribution and occurrence status of lithium in brine have important implications for lithium recovery, few reports had correlated to this issue. In this article, a study was carried out to explore the lithium migration behavior during brine evaporation and KCl production process at Qarhan Salt Lake. The occurrence status of lithium both in fresh mined brine and residual brine after evaporation were also speculated by means of lithium concentration evaluation and theoretical calculation based on the Pitzer electrolyte solution theory. Results showed that, for Qarhan brine mined from the Bieletan region, most lithium was enriched in the residual brine during the brine evaporation process. The concentration of lithium in the residual brine could be more than 400 mg/L. More than 99.93% lithium ions in residual brine exist in free ions state and lithium does not precipitate from brine with a density of 1.3649 g/mL. The results also revealed that lithium concentration in wastewater discharged from KCl plants can reach a level of 243.8 mg/L. The investigation results provide a theoretical basis for comprehensive development and utilization of lithium resources in Qarhan Salt Lake.
We also found that Reduced C9ORF72 activity also induces iMN hypersensitivity to DPRs by impairing their clearance. This uncovers a more direct form of cooperative pathogenesis between gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms in C9ORF72 ALS/FTD. Through a potentially similar mechanism, reduced C9orf72 levels can also facilitate cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation in mouse neurons 20.
Immunostaining revealed that C9ORF72+/− and C9ORF72−/− iMNs contained elevated levels of NMDA (NR1) and AMPA (GLUR1) receptors on neurites and dendritic spines compared to control iMNs under basal conditions (Fig. 4a, c, d and Supplementary Fig. 5b and 10a, c-e, g, h, j, k). In addition, control iMNs treated with C9ORF72-specific ASOs displayed increased numbers of NMDA and AMPA receptors in their neurites (Supplementary Fig. 10l, m). C9ORF72 patient iMNs (n=3 patients) also showed elevated NR1 and GLUR1 levels compared to controls (n=3 controls), and forced expression of C9ORF72 isoform B reduced glutamate receptor levels in patient iMNs (n=3 patients) to that of controls (n=3 controls) (Fig. 4a-c and Supplementary Fig. 10a-h). mRNA levels of NR1 (GRIN1) and GLUR1 (GRIA1) were not elevated in flow-purified C9ORF72+/− iMNs, indicating that increased transcription could not explain the increased glutamate receptor levels (Supplementary Fig. 10n).